- Oil = a very overloaded term. Generally, "a slippery liquid". Could mean crude oil, fuel oil, lubricating oil, or even edible products, such as corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, salad oil.
- Crude Oil = Natural Product. Broad-spectrum mixture of hydrocarbons
- from the lightest NGLs (Natural Gas Liquids, a/k/a "condensate")
from C3/Propane to C10/Decane "Natural Gasoline"
- middle weight hydrocarbons from Kerosene to Diesel (C10-C20)
- heavy oils, lubricating oil, fuel oil, greases, wax (C20-C50)
- extra heavy tars (C50+) Bitumen (Asphalt, Pitch) Semi-solid
- Tar Sands = Geological formation. Largest is in Alberta, Canada. Raw material (bitumen+sand). NOT A SHIPPABLE PRODUCT. Requires cleaning and processing before being further refined.
- "Oil Sands" = a very misleading term. "Tar Sands" is more accurate. The Tar Sands formation in Alberta contains very little of what what might be called "crude oil".
- "Bitumen" = a low-grade, extra heavy hydrocarbon. Bitumen is a SEMI-SOLID, and thus is not a "slippery liquid". The terms "oil" or "crude oil" often used for bitumen are inappropriate. Bitumen can be a natural product, or a residual product of crude oil refining.
Bitumen is a component of crude oil. BITUMEN ITSELF IS NOT THE SAME AS "CRUDE OIL". Bitumen is the raw material of interest in "tar sands". Bitumen is not a product which can be easily shipped, except in a rail hopper car like coal. Prior to modern times, Bitumen has been considered a refinery WASTE PRODUCT. Old refinery diagrams called it "residuum" or "bottoms product". It was used principally to seal roads, and roofs as a beneficial use.
Bitumen cannot be shipped in a pipeline without being diluted with a solvent, generally, NGLs. Synonyms: Asphalt, Pitch, Tar
- "Upgraded Bitumen" = Prior to modern times (~1990s), it had very little use as a refinery input, since it contains very little of the most valuable light and middle-weight hydrocarbons used for fuel, lubricants, and as inputs to the petro-chemical industry. It is only because most of the easy-to-get crude oil on planet earth is depleted, that this low-grade hydrocarbon is being used as a refinery input. It is only through extreme-technology that bitumen can be used as a source of refined products (such as gasoline), as it must be "upgraded".
Upgrading bitumen is an extremely expensive process, both in terms of capital -- the Suncor Upgrader in Ft. McMurray Alberta cost ~$12B --, it is also expensive in terms of energy inputs. Upgrading bitumen requires massive amounts of other fuel such as natural gas or propane, as a heat source, at extreme energy levels (somtimes 850 °C or higher) to smash the long hydrocarbon molecules into smaller components.
- "Diluted Bitumen" = a/k/a, "DilBit", is a SYNTHETIC PRODUCT, raw bitumen diluted by NGLs. Diluted Bitumen can be thought of as a low-grade synthetic crude oil, however it has a "hole in the middle". It is made of light hydrocarbon diluents, and extra-heavy bitumen. But very little of the middle-weight hydrocarbons found in natural crude oil. Diluted Bitumen IS NOT "CRUDE OIL"!!! They are taxed/regulated differently, refined differently, and are chemically different.
- "SynCrude" = Synthetic Crude. SynCrude is a trademarked product, a higher grade form of synthetic crude than Diluted Bitumen. SynCrude is made by blending Diluted Bitumen with middle-weight hydrocarbons created by Upgrading Bitumen. There are various other blends such as "SynBit".
--Doesn't take a whole lot of imagination to see a shortcut being taken past Lake Champlain to Albany. Notice one route leads to Linden. By the way, Cassellini, the lobbyist for Pilgrim from Albany, said recently in Rensselaer that the Pilgrim Pipelines would never transport tar sands, but no pipeline can! It can take the diluted bitumen produced from tarsands however! Language is critical!Any which way they can...http://readersupportednews.org/opinion2/277-75/38266-tar-sands-in-the-atlantic-ocean-transcanadas-proposed-energy-east-pipeline
Whale breaches near oil tanker. (photo: NOAA)
Tar Sands in the Atlantic Ocean: TransCanada's Proposed Energy East PipelineBy Joshua Axelrod and Anthony Swift, NRDC28 July 16ransCanada—which was thwarted in its effort to drive Keystone XL through America's heartland—is now pursuing a project that would effectively create a waterborne tar sands pipeline that would threaten the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. This proposed Canadian pipeline, Energy East, would bring as much as 1.1 million barrels per day of mostly tar sands oil from Alberta to Canada's eastern seaport of Saint John, New Brunswick. From there, nearly 300 supertankers per year would form a high-risk "pipeline" down the entire U.S. Eastern Seaboard, from the tip of Maine to the Florida Panhandle, around Florida's peninsula, and on to refineries along the Gulf Coast.The tankers—representing a 300 percent increase in crude oil traffic in Nova Scotia's ecologically critical Bay of Fundy—would pose a significant threat to endangered marine mammals and regionally critical fisheries in the form of deafening ocean noise and an increased risk of oil spills and ship strikes. Given that the National Academy of Sciences has concluded that emergency responders lack the tools to effectively contain and clean up diluted bitumen (the most common form of tar sands crude), the risk of a tar sands spill threatens vibrant and irreplaceable marine habitats all along the East Coast—along with economies that depend on them. The pipeline would also bring a significant increase in carbon pollution, equivalent to the annual emissions of as many as 54 million passenger vehicles, and lock in high-carbon infrastructure expected to operate for at least 50 years.Despite the significant risks posed by Energy East, our analysis reveals that the scope of the forthcoming environmental review by Canadian authorities is sorely lacking. In this report, we offer a series of recommendations for reforming the current regulatory review process and propose several critical safety regulations for the United States and Canada, including:
- Imposing a tar sands oil tanker moratorium in U.S. and Canadian waters until appropriate spill response techniques are developed to address a diluted bitumen spill into water.
- Improving tanker operations to ensure that any impacts to marine mammals and ecosystems would be at a minimum.
- Amending Canada's Environmental Assessment Act to improve public participation in the review process and ensure consideration of the environmental, health, and economic impact in areas ranging from where the oil is produced to its final destination.
- Getting the United States involved in the review process, ensuring that risks to shared resources are analyzed.
- Permanently protecting especially vulnerable and special ocean regions to eliminate, as much as possible, the threat oil spills and other marine accidents pose to these critical areas.
http://readersupportednews.org/opinion2/277-75/38266-tar-sands-in-the-atlantic-ocean-transcanadas-proposed-energy-east-pipelineJail the corporate criminals who kill, steal, lie for profit.
Visit the CAPP web site for more information on opposing the Pilgrim Pipeline: http://stoppilgrimpipeline.com/
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May you, and all beings
be happy and free from suffering :)
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